A Mapudungun/English glossary

Ad: Exterior aspect of things.
Admapu: Custom, tradition.
Adwen: Close relatives. A person who shares your customs.
Ailla: Nine.
Aillarewe: (See rewe.)  Literally, nine rewe, therefore a large gathering of Mapuche.
Am: Soul as separate from the body, living on after death.  Also alwe.  The soul, while in the body, is pellu.
Amuyu: Let’s go.
Añkeñ peñeñ: Deformed child.
Antu: Sun.  Or day.
Are: Heat.
Atrutrui: Cry of sorrow.
Ayulaimn: You do not love.
Ayun: To love.

Chaiwe: Basket, or sieve.
Chamall: Breechclout (also chiripa).
Chau: Father.
Che: Person.
Cherufe: Fox fire.
Chillko: A fuchsia (Fuchsia magellanica).Chillko

 

 

 

 

 


Chiripa: Breechclout (also chamall).
Chiwud: Owl (considered a bird of ill omen).

Chomellko: Edible sea snail.
Choñchoñ: In Mapuche mythology, a fatidic nocturnal bird in form of a human head that flies by using its enlarged ears.
Chori: Lobster.
Choroi: Green parrot with a dark red tail (Enicognathus leptorynchus).

cachana-bigChuchu: Maternal grandmother.

Dawe
: Quinoa.
Degu: Small rodent native to Chile (Octogon degus).  Easily domesticated, and edible.

Dengu: Thing, of affairs.  See wethakelu.
Dewiñ: Mountain range.  The Andes.
Deya: A man’s sister.
Diuka: Finch endemic to Chile (Diuca diuca).

Diweñ: Edible bracket fungus that grows on oak trees.

Domo: Woman, or wife.
Dumiñ: Darkness.

Eimi
: You (familiar, singular).
Ekull: Rag, or shawl.
Epu: Two.

Feichi
: This.
Filew: The ancestral spirit of all machi.
Filu: Snake.
Fiu Fiu: River called the Bío Bío in Spanish.
Foike: Tree sacred to the Mapuche (Drymis winteri).  Canelo, in Spanish.
Foki: A vine.
Fotem: Child of the father.
Fotru: An interjection.  Exclamation.
Fucha: Old man, as a noun.  Big, as an adjective.
Fucha lafken: Great sea.  The Pacific.
Fucha pele malal: Big wood fence.  A stockade.

Ifunche: Mythological being, variously described (the name also variously spelled).  A deformed child taken into the service of a kalku, or sorcerer.  The ifunche has its head turned backward, and walks on one leg, since the other has been broken and attached to the back of its head.  The kalku sews all the orifices of the ifunche shut.

Kaikaifilu: Mythological snake living in the ocean.
Kallfu: Blue.
Kalku: Evil sorcerer, or witch.
Kalkutun: Witchcraft.
Kangen: Something else.
Kawell(u): Horse. Mapudungun for the Spanish word, caballo.
Kawiñ: The drunken celebration of a glad event.
Kechu: Five.
Keltewe: Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis).  Bird common in Chile, black and white in flight, with a shrill warning cry.

Kelleñu: Tears.
Kelleñ: Strawberries.
Ketrau: Testicles.
Kewen: Tongue.
Kepam: Mapuche woman’s ‘dress.’
Kilkil: Nocturnal pygmy owl (Glaucidium nanum).

Killai: Tree with a saponiferous inner bark (Quillaja saponaria).
Kiñe: One.
Kiñeche: Relative (Pu kiñeche: Extended kin).
Kisuweñ: People belonging to the same family.
Ko: Water.
Kofke: Bread.
Koftun: The killing of a newborn child and the roasting of his testicles: a revenge of unwed Mapuche mothers on unfaithful men.
Kollof: Edible seaweed (Durvilleae antartica).  Cochayuyo, in Spanish.
Konchatun: Ceremony in which two men sacrifice animals for each other, making them special friends who call each other “koncho.
Koni: From the verb ‘konn,’ to enter.  In!
Kopiwe: Evergreen climbing vine, and its flower, indigenous to the ‘Valdivian’ forest of Chile (Lapageria rosea).

Koyam: Oak.
Kudañ: Testicles.
Kuden: Games.
Kudellkiñ: Firefly.
Kufull: Shellfish.
Kuga: Family.
Kula: A bamboo (Chusquea quila).  Quila, in Spanish.

Kulkul: Fern.
Kullkull: Aboriginal instrument, tipped by a cow’s horn in modern times.
Kultrung: Drum of the machi.

Kulliñ: Animal.
Kume: Good.
Kume ad: Beautiful (see ad).
Kume mognen: Good living, or the harmony of things.
Kume pellu: Good luck.
Kupulwe: Mapuche cradleboard.
Kurawitrutref: War spoon of Pichikan.
Kure: Wife.
Kuru: Black.
Kutran: Disease.
Kuyen: Moon, or month.

Lafken: Lake, or sea.
Laku: Paternal grandfather.
Lamngen: Sibling.
Lape: War cry, “Death!”
L’an: To die.
L’ayem: The dead.
Likan: Sacred stone.
Lik winka: White foreigner (see winka), or, a Spaniard.
Liken: Silver.
Likwinkadungun: Spanish language..
Loika: Meadowlark (Sturnella loyca).

Loko: Edible ocean mollusk (Concholepas concholepas).
Lolo: Hole, or cave.
Longko: The head.  A leader.
Luan: Llama or guanaco.
Llanka: Sacred stone.
Machi
: Shaman, healer.
Mai: Yes.
Machitun: Healing ceremony of the machi.
Maki: Small tree with an edible berry (Aristotelia chilensis), sacred to the Mapuche.
Makuñ: Poncho.
Malon: Feud.
Malle fotem: Father’s brother’s nephew.
Malle ñawe: Father’s brother’s niece.
Mañke: Condor (Vultur gryphus).

Mari: Ten.
Marichewe: A war cry of the Mapuche.
Mari mari: Mapuche greeting.  Literally, “ten ten,” or a hundred.
Mapu: The earth.
Mapudungun: Language of the Mapuche (“Things of the earth”).
Mapuche: Person of the earth.
Me: No.
Meñkutoki: Crested sparrow indigenous to Chile (Zonotrichia capensis chilensis).  Chincol, in Spanish.

Meulen: Whirlwind.
Milli: Gold.
Miski: Honey.
Mognen: To live.
Mudai: A fermented beverage.
Mulul: A vine (Ribes cucullatum), zarzaparrilla, in Spanish.  A compress made from it is said to be good for headaches.
Murke: Toasted flour.
Murkeko: Toasted flour and water.
Newen: Force.  A weapon.
Nge: Eye.
Ngen: A wild spirit that comes to the machi in vision and offers its powers.
Ngechin: Excrement.
Ngeru: Fox.
Ngillañ: A man’s brother in law.
Ngillatun: Sacred ceremony of the Mapuche.
Ngollife: A drunk.
Ngulchenmaiwen: Island of the dead (which some equate with Isla Mocha).
Nalka: Rhubarb with edible stems (Gunnera tinctoria).  A black dye can be obtained from its roots.  Pangue in Spanish.
Nupu: Tree with an edible fruit (Lardizabala biternata).
Nuyun: Earthquake.

Ñachi: Dish prepared from coagulated blood, salt and hot pepper.
Ñamku: Hawk (Buteo polysoma polysoma).

Ñawe: Father’s daughter.
Ñocha: Plant of the bromeliaceae, leaves used to make baskets.
Ñufku: Measure equal to the distance between both hands extended out.
Ñuke: Mother.  Maternal aunt.

Pali:  The ball with which palin is played.
Palin:  A Mapuche ball game played with curved sticks (the accent is on the second syllable).
Palinche: Palin player.
Pangi: Puma.
Papai: How children address their mother.
Parufe: The central, sacred circle of the ngillatun.
Pellu: Soul of a living person.
Penun: Penis.
Peñeñ: Child, with respect to the mother.
Peñi: Brother of a man.  Also a greeting between men.
Peron: Knot.
Peukayal: Good bye.
Peuko: Hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus).

Pewen: A small fish.
Peweñ:  A coniferous evergreen tree (Araucaria araucana), araucaria in Spanish.

PeweñcheChe who live on the mountain flanks, and eat the pine nuts of the peweñ.
Piam: “It is said,” or gossip.
Pichi:  Small.
Pichiche:  A child.
Pichi mapu:  Close.
Pifilka:  A whistle, or flute.

Piku:  North.
Pikunche:  People of the north.
Pillañ:  A spirit governing natural events.  An ancestor.  A volcano.
Pillmaikeñ:  A swallow (Tachycineta meyeni).

Pinshe: A hummingbird.  See pingda.

Piwicheñ: A flying monster, and vampire.
Pingda: A hummingbird (Sephanoides galeritus).  Also pinshe.
Poñu:  A potato.
Pu: Pluralizes living things (pu kiñeche, e.g.).
Pudu: Tiny deer, smallest in the world (13 to 17 inches tall).

Pu kiñeche:  Immediate family.
Puye:  A small fish.
Raki:  A bird (Ibis melanopsis).  The bandurria, in Spanish.

Rali:  Wooden plate.
Raytrayen:  Flower in the Waterfall (a name).
Reche: A true Mapuche.
Rengi:  A bamboo (Chuscuea coleou).  Colihue, in Spanish.

Rewe: A pole set in the ground.  Formerly it stood for a subdivision of the Mapuche.  Also, a section of tree trunk with steps carved in it so it can be climbed used by machi in their ceremonies into present times.  Branches of the sacred trees—maki, triwe, and foike—are tied to its side.  The face of the filew of the machi is carved at the top.

Renu:  Sorcerer’s cave.
Ruili: A large tree (Nothofagus alpina).
Ruka: A Mapuche dwelling, its wood frame thatched with rush.

Shompalwe: A mythological Mapuche creature living in water that steals a woman and turns her into a wala.

Tempulkalwe: A mythological Mapuche whale/boatwoman that takes the souls of the dead to Ngulchenmaiwen (the versions are many).
Tiuke: A large, hawk-like bird (Milvago chimango).

Toki: Literally, a stone ax.  A battle chief wears an ax head pendant from his neck as symbol of his leadership.
Trapi: Hot pepper.
Traro: A falcon (Caracara plancus).

Trarulongko: Headband.
Trengko: Mockingbird (Mimus thenka)

Trentren: A mythological Mapuche serpent, that sets out to dominate the land and its volcanoes, and is defeated.
Trewa:  A dog.
Tripalwe: The goal, in palin.
Triwe: Tree sacred to the Mapuche (Laurelia sempervivens).  Laurel, in Spanish.
Trutruka: A Mapuche musical instrument, tipped by a cow’s horn in modern times.

Umeñ:  A bird.
Umeñdomo:  Birdwoman.
Uwa:  Corn.
Uweñ:  A reed used for making rope.

Waillapeñ:  A monster.
Wala: A diving bird, a coot (Podiceps major), which constructs a floating nest and has a mournful cry.

Wampu: Dugout canoe.
Wed wed: Idiot.
Weda: Bad.
Weichafe: Warrior.
Wekufu: Projected evil, which the machi can remove from the sick person as a small object or animal—perhaps a sliver of wood, or snake.
Welen: Sorrow.
Wentru: Man, or husband.
Wenu: Up. The sky.  The weather.
Wenu mapu: A spiritual dimension located in the sky, where Mapuche ancestors and deities live.
Werken: Messenger.
Wetripantu: The New Year.
Wethakelu: Thing, of an object.  See dengu.
Weye: Homosexual man.
Wichanalwe: Soul captured by a kalku, and enslaved.
Wichanmapu: From wichawn, to ally for a common cause, as for war.  The alliance of all Mapuche.
Wif winu: Long knife.
Wilal: Net bag.
Wilef: Brilliant, or shining.
Wilef wethakelu: Shining thing.
Willeñ: Urine.
Willi: South.
Willin: A nutria, or otter (Lutra provocax).
Winka: An Inca.  Not Mapuche.  A foreigner.
Winu: A knife.
Wutru: A spoon.

Yamai: Yes indeed.
Yeku: A crow-like bird (Phalacrocorax niger).
Yupe: A sea urchin.

 

 

 

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